Insects and other foods the trout may be eating:
1.    Blue-winged Olives
2.    Little Short Horned Sedges
3.    American March Browns
4.    Cinnamon Sedges (Caddisflies) (Abrams Creek)
5.    Green Sedges (Caddisflies)
6.    Little Sister Caddisflies (Abrams Creek)
7.    Pale Evening Duns
8.    Little Yellow Stoneflies -Yellow Sallies
9.    Eastern Green Drakes (Abrams Creek)
10.  Giant Stoneflies
11.  Light Cahills
12.  Sculpin, baitfish and small crayfish (Imitate with streamers)
13.  Midges

Green Sedge (Caddisfly) - Pupa
The Green Sedge pupae are eaten by the trout in large numbers with ease. The
problem for anglers is recognizing when the hatch is occurring. That is the case with
most caddisflies. By the time anyone recognizes what is going on, the hatch is over.
The Green Sedges started to hatch a couple of weeks ago and will continue, off and
on depending on the species, from now until the first week of July. They will hatch in
the late afternoons close to dark later in the year. Right now they hatch about an
hour or two before dark or after the sun has set.

One problem with this is that there are multiple hatches occurring and you must
determine which insect it is the trout are most interested in. Normally, they will focus
on one, not so much because it's the preferred one, but more so because it is the
easiest one to obtain. The areas of the stream where these different insects are
hatching may be different. It usually isn't easy to figure it out. In the case of the
Green Sedges, they hatch in the fast water areas of the runs and riffles like many
other clinger mayflies. They will normally reach the surface at the ends of the runs
and riffles and that is where you want you pupa imitation to reach the surface.

If the hatch is fairly substantial, and it often is, you may find the female egg layers
from previous hatches already at work. In this event, the trout will still prefer the
pupae over the adults. It is just much easier for them to acquire them. Again, the
problem is recognizing what is going on. The adults you see flying around and in the
bushes may be from hatches that have ended that day or from hatches from
previous days. The number one indication that the trout are feeding on the Green
Sedge pupae is flashes from the trout near the ends of the runs and riffles. That is
usually all you will see and that isn't easy to notice in low light situations. If you do,
you need to quickly tie on an imitation of the pupa. It usually won't get very far in the
drift before being eaten. If you see the trout taking food from the surface, it may be
the Green Sedge egg layers.

You have to judge each situation based on what you observe on the stream. Too
many anglers just tie on different flies testing which one gets some attention. That is
a very poor strategy. If you just stop and pay close attention to what is going on you
can usually make far better decisions as to which fly to use, or more importantly,
where to place it.

I'll briefly go over the presentation of the pupa imitation. The idea is to imitate it
rising to the surface from the bottom near the ends of the riffles and runs where the
water slows down some. You should place the fly in the fast water runs and riffles
and swing it all the way around to the downstream position. Just stop the rod and let
the fly surface in the current near the end of the fast water. You will need to add
some split-shot weight about six or eight inches above the fly. If you must, you can
rig the pupa fly below a larger dry fly as a dropper. This works okay sometimes but
is not near as effective as imitating the entire emergence sequence. In fact, it
shouldn't be expected to catch half as many as properly imitating the pupa.