Insects and other foods the trout should be eating:
1.    BWOs (Little and Eastern BWOs)
2.    Little Yellow Quills
3.    Little Yellow Stoneflies
4.    Slate Drakes
5.    Needle Stoneflies
6.    Mahogany Duns

Most available/ Other types of food:
7.    Sculpin, Minnows (Streamers)
8.    Craneflies
9.    Beetles
10.  Grasshoppers
11.  Ants

Fly Presentation - Part 4

Cross Stream Presentations
The biggest advantage of the cross-stream presentation is that it allows your fly to pass over the
fish before it sees the leader - that is, if the length of the cast is exactly right. If you cast too far the
fish may still see the leader, and if you cast to short, the fish may not see the fly at all. By the way,
it's much better to be short than long in this situation. If you make too long of a cross current cast,
your chances of catching the fish is usually over because your fly line and often, even your leader
will spook the fish when it crosses over the fish's position.
A disadvantage of the cross-stream cast is that if you make a straight line cast directly across
current you will always have drag to content with. This is true even in non-conflicting type currents.
You must either make a slack line cast to prevent the drag or mend you line to correct the drag. If
there's no slack in the fly line, leader or tippet, the fly will begin to drag as soon as it hits the water
with the line tight. You can either strip out a little slack into the fly line to keep the current from
dragging the fly or mend the fly line back upstream of the fly.

Anytime you are moving the line and leader after it is in the water you are in danger of spooking
the trout. You also must get the right lead, so to speak, or land the fly just the right distance above
the fish. This should be such that the fly line, leader or fly doesn't spook the trout and at the right
angle to deliver the fly over or just in front of the trout. In other words,
you must control your
distance and angle of lead
and this takes a lot of practice to achieve the high degree of
accuracy that's usually needed.

Also, when your casting cross-stream, you have no target to hit other than one you imagine. The
target is an arbitrary point that is well upstream and at an angle to the trout’s position. Curve cast,
reach mends, and curve mends can be used to control the drag on cross-stream cast.

Combination Up Stream and Cross Stream Presentations:
As I wrote yesterday, there's 360 degrees in a circle, meaning there's many different ways to cast
relative to the direction of the current. In most all situations, the best up stream presentations are
always made somewhere between directly upstream and directly across or perpendicular to the

Direct up stream presentations lets you leader and on long drifts, even your fly line pass over the
target and this can spook the fish your trying to catch.

Direct across stream presentations must be placed upstream of the target and at just the right
distance. It also requires mends or slack line fed in a downstream direction to prevent drag.

It all depends on the current and particular stream conditions but most of the best upstream
presentations are usually made at about thirty degrees left or right of directly upstream. This will
allow the fly to pass over the fish without the fly line and larger part of the leader passing over it
beforehand. It also creates less drag than a cast made directly perpendicular to the current.

If the cast is short, a thirty degree angle from directly upstream may not be adequate to keep the
fly line out of sight of the trout. You may need to be closer to forty-five degrees left or right of the
target. By casting at an angle of forty-five degrees, I mean a cast that is splitting the difference in
casting directly upstream and directly across the current. Just to keep the terminology straight, a
presentation made at 120 degrees from directly upstream would be a down and across
presentation. There are situations where such cast are helpful but we will get into that later.
Copyright 2012 James Marsh