Insects and other foods the trout should be eating:
1.    Little BWOs
2.    Green Sedges (Caddisflies)
3.    Cinnamon Caddis (Mostly Abrams Creek)
4.    Little Short Horned Sedges
5.    American March Browns
6.    Giant Stoneflies
7.    Light Cahills
8.    Little Yellow Stoneflies (Yellow Sally)
9.    Eastern Pale Evening Duns
10.  Sulphurs
11.  Slate Drakes
12.  Golden Stoneflies

Most available/ Other types of available food:
13.    Sculpin, Minnows (Streamers)

KISS A Bug Series - Golden Stoneflies

Golden Stoneflies are species belonging to the Perlidae family of stoneflies. Their nymphs
are strong and very active. It's the largest family of big stoneflies there is. They are quite
plentiful in all the streams of Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

It's easy to tell the difference in the Pteronarcyidae species, or large eastern Giant Black
Stoneflies and the Golden Stoneflies. They are much lighter in color, have longer tails and
antennae and heads that are shaped in a triangle configuration. One thing few anglers are
aware of is the fact the males are much smaller than the females. They can even appear to
be two different stonefly species. In the adult stage of life, it's the females anglers should be
interested in. The males never get in the water. Both the male and females emerge out of
the water and of course, only the female returns to the water to deposit eggs. ,

In the Eastern United States, there are over fifty species in the Perlidae family. It is almost
impossible to tell the difference in some of them. The Peridae family can be broken down into
two subfamilies - the Perlinae and the Acroneuriinae subfamilies. Now, I'm only mentioning
these two names because you will sometimes see them in addition to the Perlidae family
name and it can create some confusion. It shouldn't because the difference in these two
sub-families is only important to scientist. Anglers may refer to Golden Stoneflies as being
any one of these three different family names. That's like having to remember a woman
that's been divorced twice by three different names, or on second thought, maybe that isn't
such a good example.

If you think that's confusing, read further. Eastern species of this family have been called not
only Golden Stoneflies, but Willowflies, Common Stoneflies, Stone Creepers, American
Stoneflies, Embossed Stoneflies, Beautiful Stoneflies, Yellow Legged Stoneflies and
Common Stoneflies.  

There's one big difference in the Golden Stoneflies of the West and those of the East.  In the
West, they are usually active during the day. In the East, they are not very active during the
day and some species are only active during the night. I've never figured out why this is true
and neither has anyone else. Whereas you can catch trout on imitations of the Golden
Stoneflies almost all day long on some western streams, that isn't the case on eastern
streams or at least, we have never encountered that situation. We will get into this later in
the series.

These are the species that have been found in Great Smoky Mountains National
Acroneuria abnormis
Acroneuria arida
Acroneuria carolinensis
Acroneuria filicis
Acroneuria frisoni
Acroneuria perplexa
Acroneuria petersi
Agnetina capitata
Attaneuria ruralis
Beloneuria georgiana
Beloneuria stewarti
Eccoptura xanthenes
Hansonoperla appalachia
Neoperla occipitalis
Paragnetina ichusa
Paragnetina immarginata
Perlesta frisoni
Perlesta nelsoni
Perlinella drymo
Perlinella ephyre

This is why you will see some variations in the Golden Stoneflies in the park.
However, all things considered, they all look very much alike. Many of the differences in the
above species are difficult to detect with the naked eye. I'm mentioning this to also point out
that it's one main reason that determining exactly when Golden Stoneflies are going to hatch
in the Smokies can have some exceptions, regardless of the time period selected.
Not all of
these species hatch at the same times
. About we have been able to determine is that at
least the great majority of them hatch from about this time of the year until about the first or
second week of July.
Copyright 2012 James Marsh
Our "Fly Fishing DVD" on Stoneflies features a Golden
Stonefly on the sleeve. This instructional program
teaches you all about the nine families of stoneflies
and how to go about imitating them. All nine families
are present in the streams of the Smokies.
Finding a Golden Stonefly nymph's shuck on a
boulder or rock along a stream provides all the proof
you need to know these large stoneflies are hatching.