Insects and other foods the trout may be eating:
1.    Blue-winged Olives
2  .  Green Sedges (Caddis)
3.    Cinnamon Caddis (mostly Abrams Creek)
4.    Little Sister Caddis (mostly Abrams Creek)
5.    LIght Cahills
6.    Little Short-horned Sedges
7.    American March Browns
8.    Eastern Pale Evening Duns
9.    Sulphurs
10.  Little Yellow Stoneflies
11.  Giant Black Stoneflies
12.  Golden Stoneflies
13.  Streamers (Sculpin, Minnows)
14.  Inch Worms

Golden Stoneflies
The Golden Stoneflies are species of the Perlidae family of stoneflies. These are
medium to large stoneflies. These stoneflies exist in all the streams of Great Smoky
Mountains National Park and have just started to hatch in the lower to mid

Golden Stonefly hatches usually provide excellent action in the Smokies and they
can last much longer than most other stonefly hatches. The Little Yellow Stoneflies
and some Little Green stoneflies are locally called Yellow Sallies but in the Smokies,
that's a catch all name for a very large number of species of stoneflies, not just the
Isoperla bilineata species called the Yellow Sally in most other areas of the country.
As a group, they hatch over a longer time span than the Golden stoneflies but not if
you only consider the true Yellow Sallies.

There's more than one genus that uses the common name "Golden Stonefly". This
includes several species of these large insects. As I have said in my other articles
on stoneflies, the good part about stoneflies is the fact that most all of the different
species behave very similarly. There's little difference in the appearance or
behavior of the various species of the Golden Stoneflies. That's a big benefit that
helps with all the confusion in the common names of stoneflies.

The nymphs and adults of these stoneflies vary from one to two inches long. They
live for two or three years depending on the species, habitat and other factors.  
They got their name from the golden brown color of the adult.

In the upcoming articles, we will cover the tactics and techniques used to imitate
the nymphs and the egg laying activity of the adult female.

The above image of an adult Golden Stonefly is the cover shot used for our
popular selling DVD that shows all nine families of the stoneflies and goes into
detail as to how the various species are best imitated. It includes streams from the
West to the East Coast.

This program, which took a few years to produce, should help anyone improve their
catch. The stonefly is a major source of food for trout in the Smokies. All nine
families live in the streams of the park. I would venture to say there's a larger
diversity of them than there is anywhere in the United States.

2011 James Marsh