Insects and other foods the trout may be eating:
1.    Blue-winged Olives
2  .  Sculpin, baitfish and small crayfish (Imitate with streamers)
3.    Little Brown Stoneflies
4.    Quill Gordons
5.    Blue Quills
6.    Little Black Caddis
9.    Hendricksons and the Red Quills

The Basics of Fly Fishing Series - The Reach Cast
Although its main use is to prevent drag, when you are casting across current, the
reach cast allows you to easily place your fly line upstream of the fly so that your fly
drifts towards the fish before the fly line does. It also allows you to avoid lining the
trout when you are fishing directly upstream. Even when you are making a
downstream presentation to an individual fish, you can use the reach cast to place
your fly line to one side or the other of the fly. If the fish doesn't take the fly, your fly
line doesn't spook the trout when you pick it up off the water for another cast. The
reach cast has several uses and is fairly easy to make.

To make a simple reach cast when you are fishing across current, you make a cast
as you normally would but just as soon as the forward stoke is made (at the end of
the forward power stroke) while the line is unrolling in the air, you reach your arm
and the fly rod to your right or left in an upstream direction. The farther you sweep
the tip of the fly rod upstream, the farther upstream the fly line will land upstream of
the leader and fly. The idea is to get the fly line a few feet upstream of the fly. This
lets you fly approach the trout before the fly line does.

If you are fishing directly upstream, or just slightly up and across the current, you
can make the same cast the same way by reaching to the right or left of where you
intend for the fly line to land. This prevents lining the fish that your fly crosses over.

Another application is when your fishing current that is slower than the current you
must cast across. Say your casting across fast water to fish slower water along a
bank. If you make the normal straight line cast, the fast water will grab the fly line
and drag the fly through the slow water. If you make a reach cast upstream, you can
give the fly a much better or longer drag free drift because the fly line will land
upstream of the fly. The fly will be able to drift a short ways in the slow water before
the fast water pulls the fly line downstream below the fly enough to pull it or drag it.

The more you reach to the side, the farther the line falls from the fly. I reach
anywhere from just a couple of feet to the side to near the point I almost fall over
depending on the situation regarding where I want the fly to land in relationship to
the fly line.

By the way, this cast won't help you if your casting across conflicting currents or
currents of different speeds and directions. We will get into that later. The reach
cast is just a simple maneuver to get your fly line away from the fly.

Hendrickson Hatch - Emergers and Duns
As previously mentioned, the Hendrickson hatch, consisting of the Hendrickson
(female) and Red Quill (male) mayflies, hatch mostly from the pools. They can also
hatch near the ends of long runs and riffles if the bottom is partially soil and not all
rock. In either case you are fishing slower moving water than what many that fish the
Smokies are used to fishing. The presentations requires longer, lighter leaders and
tippets. As a general rule, the cast have to be longer than the normal short cast
commonly used.

These mayflies hatch when the water is between 50 and 55 degrees. The
nymphs swim to the surface to hatch using a wiggle motion of their bodies. They
may repeat this process several times prior to hatching. It's during this time that they
are most subject to being eaten by the trout.

Separate patterns are necessary for the duns if you want to imitate both the males
and females. I suggest you imitate the female for the dun and male spinner but we
have fly patterns to match the female dun in two hook sizes and the male dun in two
hook sizes. Most of the Hendricksons in the Smokies are a hook size 14. The male
Red Quill is barely a size 14. These mayflies reach larger sizes in water where the
pH is higher such as spring creeks and for that reason, we offer both genders in a
12 and a 14. They look much different and are different colors. The male is the
smaller of the two. They look like two completely different mayflies. Of course the
size is the main difference. The color of the male abdomen and thorax is much
darker, has a red tint to it and is slimmer than the female. The female abdomen
is more of a cream color with a slight red or dark green tint. The males have big red

In the smoother, moderately flowing water of the pools, It's often tough to get very
close to the fish feeding on the emergers and duns without spooking them. A
downstream presentation may be needed. Although it's possible that the trout may
ignore the duns altogether and feed only on the emergers, most of the hatches we
have encountered, the trout took the duns very aggressively. The Hendrickson
hatch does not last over a long period of time and the size of the hatch in the
Smokies can vary considerably depending on the pool or other locations they hatch.

2011 James Marsh
The two emerger
trailing shuck
versions of our
Perfect Flies look
much different.
That's the female
above and the male
left. Below is the
female dun or
Hendrickson (top)
and male dun or
Red Quill (bottom).